Education Indicators

ADULT LITERACY OR ILLITERACY RATES. 

Definition: Adult literacy rate is defined as the percentage of population aged 15 years and over who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on his/her everyday life. Adult illiteracy is defined as the percentage of the population aged 15 years and over who cannot both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on his/her everyday life.

Purpose: Adult literacy rate shows the accumulated achievement of primary education and literacy programmes in imparting basic literacy skills to the population, thereby enabling them to apply such skills in daily life and to continue learning and communicating using the written word. Literacy represents a potential for further intellectual growth and contribution to economic-socio-cultural development of society. Illiteracy rates indicate the extent of need for policies and efforts in organizing adult literacy programmes and quality primary education.

NUMBER OF ADULT ILLITERATES. 

Definition: The population aged 15 years and above who cannot both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on their every day life.

Purpose: The purpose of this indicator is to identify the size and if possible also the whereabout and characteristics of the illiterate population aged 15 years and above who should be targeted for policies and efforts in expanding adult literacy programmes.

APPARENT INTAKE RATE.

Definition: Total number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school-entrance age.

Purpose: Apparent Intake Rate indicates the general level of access to primary education. It also indicates the capacity of the education system to provide access to grade 1 for the official school-entrance age population. This indicator is used as a substitute to Net Intake Rate (NIR) in the absence of data on new entrants by single years of age.

NET INTAKE RATE. 

Definition: New entrants in the first grade of primary education who are of the official primary school-entrance age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the same age.

Purpose: To show the level of access to primary education of the eligible population of primary school-entrance age.

SCHOOL-LIFE EXPECTANCY. 

Definition: School life expectancy is defined as the total number of years of schooling which a child of a certain age can expect to receive in the future, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular age is equal to the current enrolment ratio for that age.

Purpose: This indicator shows the overall level of development of an educational system in terms of the number of years of education that a child can expect to achieve.

TRANSITION RATES. 

Definition: The number of pupils (or students) admitted to the first grade of a higher level of education in a given year, expressed as a percentage of the number of pupils (or students) enrolled in the final grade of the lower level of education in the previous year.

Purpose: This indicator conveys information on the degree of access or transition from one cycle or level of education to a higher one. Viewed from the lower cycle or level of education, it is considered as an output indicator, viewed from the higher educational cycle or level, it constitutes an indicator of access. It can also help in assessing the relative selectivity of an education system, which can be due to pedagogical or financial requirements.

GROSS ENROLMENT RATIO. 

Definition: Total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school-year.

Purpose: Gross Enrolment Ratio is widely used to show the general level of participation in a given level of education. It indicates the capacity of the education system to enrol students of a particular age-group. It is used as a substitute indicator to net enrolment ratio (NER) when data on enrolment by single years of age are not available. Furthermore, it can also be a complementary indicator to NER by indicating the extent of over-aged and under-aged enrolment.

NET ENROLMENT RATIO. 

Definition: Enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population.

Purpose: To show the extent of participation in a given level of education of children and youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the given level of education.

AGE SPECIFIC ENROLMENT RATIO. 

Definition: Percentage of the population of a specific age enrolled, irrespective of the level of education.

Purpose: To show the extent of the participation of a specific age cohort in educational activities.

REPETITION RATES. 

Definition: Proportion of pupils from a cohort enrolled in a given grade at a given school-year who study in the same grade in the following school-year.

Purpose: It measures the phenomenon of pupils from a cohort repeating a grade, and its effect on the internal efficiency of educational systems. In addition, it is one of the key indicators for analysing and projecting pupil flows from grade to grade within the educational cycle.

SURVIVAL RATES BY GRADE. 

Definition: Percentage of a cohort of pupils (or students) enrolled in the first grade of a given level or cycle of education in a given school-year who are expected to reach successive grades.

Purpose: Survival rate measures the holding power and internal efficiency of an education system. It illustrates the situation regarding retention of pupils (or students) from grade to grade in schools, and conversely the magnitude of drop-out by grade.

COEFFICIENT OF EFFICIENCY. 

Definition: The ideal (optimal) number of pupil-years required (i.e. in the absence of repetition and drop-out) to produce a number of graduates from a given school-cohort for a cycle or level of education expressed as a percentage of the actual number of pupil-years spent to produce the same number of graduates. Input-output ratio, which is the reciprocal of the coefficient of efficiency, is often used as an alternative. N.B. One school-year spent in a grade by a pupil is counted as one pupil-year.

Purpose: This is a synthetic indicator of the internal efficiency of an educational system. It summarises the consequences of repetition and drop-out on the efficiency of the educational process in producing graduates.

YEARS-INPUT PER GRADUATE. 

Definition: The estimated average number of pupil-years spent by pupils (or students) from a given cohort who graduate from a given cycle or level of education, taking into account the pupil-years wasted due to drop-out and repetition. N.B. One school-year spent in a grade by a pupil is equal to one pupil-year.

Purpose: To assess the extent of educational internal efficiency in terms of the estimated average number of years to be invested in producing a graduate.

PERCENTAGE OF REPEATERS. 

Definition: Total number of pupils who are enrolled in the same grade as in a previous year, expressed as a percentage of the total enrolment to the specified grade.

Purpose: This indicator measures the extent and patterns of repetition by grade, as part of the internal efficiency of education system.

PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION AS PERCENTAGE OF GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT. 

Definition: Total public expenditure on education (current and capital) expressed as a percentage of the Gross National Product (GNP) in a given financial year.

Purpose: This indicator shows the proportion of a country’s wealth generated during a given financial year that has been spent by government authorities on education.

PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE. 

Definition: Total public expenditure on education (current and capital) expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure in a given financial year.

Purpose: The share of total public expenditure devoted to education allows to assess the government’s policy emphasis on education relative to the perceived value of other public investments. It reflects also the commitment of a government to invest in human capital development.

PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC CURRENT EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION BY LEVEL. 

Definition: Public current expenditure for each level of education, expressed as a percentage of total public current expenditure on education.

Purpose: This indicator shows how financial resources for education have been distributed across the different levels or stages of education. It measures the relative emphasis of government spending on a particular level of education within the overall educational expenditure.

PUBLIC CURRENT EXPENDITURE PER PUPIL (STUDENT) AS % OF GNP PER CAPITA. 

Definition: Public current expenditure per pupil (or student) at each level of education, expressed as a percentage of GNP per capita in a given financial year.

Purpose: This indicator measures the share of per capita income that has been spent on each pupil or student. It helps in assessing a country’s level of investment in human capital development. When calculated by level of education, it also indicates the relative costs and emphasis placed by the country on a particular level of education.

PUPIL-TEACHER RATIO. 

Definition: Average number of pupils (students) per teacher at a specific level of education in a given school-year. Teachers are defined as persons whose professional activity involves the transmitting of knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a formal curriculum programme to students enrolled in a formal educational institution.

Purpose: This indicator is used to measure the level of human resources input in terms of number of teachers in relation to the size of the pupil population. It should normally be used to compare with established national norms on the number of pupils per teacher for each level or type of education.

PERCENTAGE OF FEMALE TEACHERS. 

Definition: The number of female teachers at a given level of education expressed as a percentage of total number of teachers (male and female) at the same level in a given school-year. Teachers are defined as persons whose professional activity involves the transmitting of knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a formal curriculum programme to students enrolled in a formal educational institution.

Purpose: This indicator shows the gender composition of the teaching force. It helps also in assessing the need for opportunities and/or incentives to encourage women to participate in teaching activities at a given level of education.

PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS IN TERTIARY EDUCATION BY ISCED LEVEL.

Definition: Enrolment in tertiary education at each ISCED level as a percentage of total enrolment in tertiary education.

Purpose: This indicator shows the distribution of tertiary students by ISCED levels. It also helps to understand the way in which degrees and qualification structures for tertiary education are organised within countries.

PERCENTAGE OF FEMALE TEACHERS. 

Definition: The number of female teachers at a given level of education expressed as a percentage of total number of teachers (male and female) at the same level in a given school-year. Teachers are defined as persons whose professional activity involves the transmitting of knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a formal curriculum programme to students enrolled in a formal educational institution.

Purpose: This indicator shows the gender composition of the teaching force. It helps also in assessing the need for opportunities and/or incentives to encourage women to participate in teaching activities at a given level of education.

PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS IN TERTIARY EDUCATION BY ISCED LEVEL.

Definition: Enrolment in tertiary education at each ISCED level as a percentage of total enrolment in tertiary education.

Purpose: This indicator shows the distribution of tertiary students by ISCED levels. It also helps to understand the way in which degrees and qualification structures for tertiary education are organised within countries.

PERCENTAGE OF FEMALE STUDENTS IN EACH ISCED LEVEL OF TERTIARY EDUCATION. 

Definition: Female enrolment in each ISCED tertiary education level as a percentage of total enrolment (male plus female) in the same ISCED level.

Purpose: This indicator helps to assess gender disparity with regard to participation in different levels of tertiary education.

STUDENTS IN TERTIARY EDUCATION BY ISCED FIELDS OF EDUCATION. 

Definition: Enrolment in each ISCED field of education in tertiary education, expressed as a percentage of the total enrolment in tertiary education.

Purpose: By showing the distribution of tertiary students by field of education, this indicator can be used to gauge the level of development of tertiary education in terms of the range of fields offered, the capacity in each field as well as student preferences, thus reflecting both the potential demand and supply of qualified human resources in different specializations.

PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF GRADUATES BY ISCED FIELDS OF EDUCATION IN TERTIARY EDUCATION. 

Definition: The number of graduates from each ISCED field of education in tertiary education, expressed as a percentage of the total number of graduates in tertiary education.

Purpose: This indicator shows the distribution of tertiary graduates over different fields of education. It indicates also the development of tertiary education in terms of the range of fields offered as well as the supply of qualified human resources in different specializations.

PERCENTAGE OF PRIVATE ENROLMENT. 

Definition: Enrolment in private educational institutions at a given level of education expressed as a percentage of total enrolment at the same level. By ‘Private’ is meant here all educational institutions not operated by a public authority, whether or not they receive financial support from such authorities.

Purpose: This indicator gives the relative weight of private education in terms of enrolment, hence the scale and capacity of private education within a country.

PERCENTAGE TEACHING STAFF IN PRIVATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION. 

Definition: Number of teachers in private educational institutions at a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the total teaching staff in all types of institutions at the same level of education. By ‘Private’ is meant here all educational institutions not operated by a public authority, whether or not they receive financial support from such authorities.

Purpose: This indicator gives the relative weight of private education in terms of teaching staff, hence the scale and human resources in private education within a country. When analysed together with the corresponding pupil-teacher ratio, this indicator shows the relative size of the teaching force in relation to enrolment in private education.

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF THE POPULATION AGED 25 YEARS AND ABOVE. 

Definition: Percentage distribution of population aged 25 years and above according to the highest level of education attained or completed with reference to ISCED.

Purpose: This indicator shows the educational composition of the population aged 25 years and above, hence the stock and quality of human capital within a country, so as to gauge needs and establish policies for upgrading it. This indicator also reflects the structure and performance of the education system and its accumulated impact on human capital formation.

NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN TERTIARY EDUCATION PER 100,000 INHABITANTS. 

Definition: Number of students enrolled in tertiary education in a given academic-year per 100,000 inhabitants.

Purpose: This indicator shows the general level of participation in tertiary education by indicating the proportion (or density) of students within a country’s population.

ENROLMENT IN SECONDARY EDUCATION BY TYPE OF EDUCATION.

Definition: Percentage distribution of students enrolled in secondary education, according to the type of education, i.e. general and vocational/technical education, including teacher training.

Purpose: This indicator gives an idea of the type of secondary education offered, the capacity in each type as well as the potential supply of skilled workers in different specializations.

PUBLIC CURRENT EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION. 

Definition: Public current expenditure on education expressed as a percentage of total public expenditure on education (current and capital) in a given financial year.

Purpose: This indicator shows the share of current expenditure within total public expenditure, thereby indicating the pattern of government spending on education in terms of the relative weight between current and capital expenditure.

TEACHERS’ EMOLUMENTS AS PERCENTAGE OF PUBLIC CURRENT EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION. 

Definition: Public expenditure devoted to teachers’ emoluments expressed as a percentage of total public current expenditure on education.

Purpose: This indicator measures the share of teachers’ emoluments within public current expenditure on education, in relation to spending on administration, teaching materials, scholarships, etc.

 

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